In an impassioned speech delivered on the United Nations in 1958, the nice cellist Pablo Casals proclaimed his perception within the universality of music.
Music, he argued, was the one inventive type of expression that ‘transcends language, politics and nationwide boundaries’. Such idealism, nevertheless, stands in stark distinction to what truly occurred throughout the first half of the twentieth century, when two world wars ruptured open alternate between music and musicians on opposing sides in these conflicts. In Britain, this course of started with a vengeance in August 1914 when the nation was dragged right into a 4 year-long wrestle with Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Coincidentally, conflict had damaged out at roughly the identical time that Sir Henry Wooden was saying the repertoire for the forthcoming season of Promenade Concert events. As at all times, the programme included a considerable variety of works by overseas composers that will be carried out in Britain for the primary time.
A big proportion of those emanated from Germany and Austria, most notably Reger’s 4 Tone Poems after Böcklin, Webern’s Six Items for Orchestra and Korngold’s Sinfonietta. As well as, Wooden needed to pay tribute to Mahler, who had died three years earlier, and proposed to characteristic a variety of his orchestral songs, together with the British premiere of Kindertotenlieder.
All these plans, nevertheless, had been shelved because of the brand new political circumstances. Certainly, such was the febrile environment at this juncture that Wooden additionally eliminated an all-Wagner live performance, changing it with music by French and Russian composers. However there was such a widespread outcry at this motion that Wagner was reinstated in a while within the season.
What occur to German music throughout the First World Warfare?
Extra excessive measures had been taken within the academic enviornment. In September 1914, the Music Committee of Company of London issued a memorandum declaring its intention to dispense with the providers of all professors of German, Austrian or Hungarian nationalities that had been contracted to show on the Guildhall Faculty of Music, and to ban all college students from enemy nations from attending the establishment.
They adopted this with a proposal to confiscate all pianos of German origin and substitute them with devices manufactured in Britain. Stress teams began a marketing campaign to steer the Related Board of the Royal Faculties of Music to suppress up to date German and Austrian repertory from its examination syllabuses and, wherever doable, promote a far larger proportion of British works. The composer Thomas Dunhill went as far as to castigate ‘dastardly academics’ of concord for permitting their pupils to put in writing the chord of the German sixth, suggesting maybe sarcastically that one ought to ‘protest towards its use within the title of patriotism and nationwide honour’.
Following Wooden’s censorship of virtually all up to date Austrian and German music from the 1914 Proms programme, it was extensively accepted that additional performances of such repertoire could be off-limits in Britain so long as the nation was at conflict. Then again, there was far much less consensus as as to if there must be a extra widespread ban on Austro-German music.
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The problem was raised often within the press and was even mentioned within the Home of Commons in 1915. Tory MP Sir Arthur Markham took a very onerous line, attacking the Proms for persevering with to programme German music and advocating a complete ban.
Saner voices, nevertheless, prevailed. Sir Henry Wooden continued to characteristic the usual works of Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert in his concert events. His steadfast method was praised by the Musical Occasions which declared that ‘the music of those composers has been our mom’s milk and we can’t banish it from our reminiscence’.
Sir Charles Stanford strongly endorsed this view by drawing a transparent distinction between the nice Nineteenth-century German composers, to whom he was devoted, and their newer counterparts. In line with him, ‘neither Wagner nor Brahms had any truck with the Prussianised crew who’ve arisen since their day. To establish the “frightfulness” of Strauss and the mass formations of Reger with both of them is an insult to them and their artwork.’
By and huge, British concert-goers raised little objection to having fun with Wagner, Brahms and different Nineteenth-century German composers throughout the conflict. However sometimes, there have been some awkward moments. Maybe essentially the most conspicuous came about in March 1915 when the Oxford Home Choral Society mounted a efficiency of Brahms’s German Requiem as a tribute to the British troopers that had fallen within the conflict.
Stanford was notably incensed by such crassness, and in a letter to the Day by day Telegraph attacked the live performance organisers in no unsure phrases: ‘In the event that they desired to present the work for its personal sake as a masterpiece frequent to the world, nobody would gainsay their selection. However in saying the German Requiem as a memorial to our useless troopers, they’re doing what its composer, if he had been dwelling, would have resented as strongly because the efficiency of a French or English work to commemorate fallen German troopers in Berlin.’
In distinction to Wagner and Brahms, who remained largely unscathed from anti-German propaganda, the music and persona of Richard Strauss attracted a lot larger opprobrium. This flip of occasions was notably stunning given that hardly a 12 months earlier, in January 1913, the British premiere of his current opera Der Rosenkavalier on the Royal Opera Home had elicited a very hot reception. Moreover, Strauss conspicuously averted taking a political stance so far as the conflict was involved. In October 1914, he refused so as to add his title to the Manifesto of the 93 which had been signed by Germany’s most outstanding scientists, students and artists declaring their unequivocal help for German navy motion.
However, Strauss was now offered to the British public because the musical embodiment of the enemy. This presumably explains the extraordinary choice by HM Customs in 1916 to impound the rating and elements for his wartime orchestral work Ein Alpensinfonie in Liverpool docks. It had been positioned in transit to the US the place varied orchestras had vied with one another for the privilege of presenting the work’s American premiere. A lot to the annoyance of the Individuals, British officers delayed releasing the fabric for a number of months earlier than they had been fully glad that no secret codes had been embedded within the music.
Strauss’s place because the bête noire of German music was bolstered in a number of vituperative articles on the composer that appeared between 1914 and ’18. Colin McAlpin, writing within the Musical Occasions, instructed that ‘Strauss undoubtedly voices the fashionable spirit of Germany. He’s of Berlin – bombastic, blatant, given to a brutish outspokenness and susceptible to cynical candour. In his music, we detect a sinister revolt towards inside legislation and order and the ear is bruised and battered by an inartistic anarchy of noise that renders worthless any afterthought of doable loveliness.’
In the one entry on a musician within the wartime dictionary Who’s Who in Hunland, Frederic William Wile castigated Strauss for his ‘intentionally sensual and degenerate musical artwork’. Because the ‘most profitable producer of sheer din the world has ever identified, his cyclonic results in such noise-poems as Elektra, Salome, The Rose Cavalier and his mid-war twister, An Alpine Symphony, scale back the Niagara-like roars of Wagnerian “themes” to the scale of a whisper.’
What occurred to German music as soon as the conflict ended?
Following the cessation of hostilities in 1918, tentative steps had been taken to rehabilitate up to date German and Austrian music and as soon as extra give it a platform in Britain. A check case came about in March 1920 when Sir Henry Wooden programmed Strauss’s Don Juan for the primary time since 1914. Anticipating potential objections from the viewers, he judiciously positioned the work proper on the finish of the live performance, thereby enabling folks to depart the corridor in the event that they so wished. Within the occasion, solely a handful of the viewers walked out, and the conductor felt sufficiently emboldened to programme extra Strauss in later concert events.
A extra contentious episode blew up two months later. The primary orchestral programme of the newly fashioned British Music Society was to characteristic Elgar’s overture Within the South and Vaughan Williams’s just lately composed A London Symphony. But a proposal to finish the live performance with Strauss’s Ein Heldenleben, barely two years after the top of the conflict, aroused appreciable outrage. Composer Sir Granville Bantock was sufficiently incensed to put in writing a letter of protest to The Occasions, lambasting such programming as a ‘gratuitous insult to British music and its musical heritage. It appears that evidently the previous parasitic system is to be resumed; we’re to return like canine to our personal vomit and the mendacity guarantees with which we have now been deluded are to be forgotten.’
The organisers of the British Music Society caved in to this stress and agreed to take away the Strauss, although the choice to switch it with music by Ravel was additionally closely criticised. Writing in The Manchester Guardian, critic Ernest Newman deplored this entire episode. He reminded readers that ‘if the objection to Ein Heldenleben is that Strauss is a German, a few of us are constrained to level out that we’re now not at conflict with Germany and that we see no purpose to deprive ourselves any additional of no matter pleasure German music can provide us. Allow us to by all means encourage British composers, however why want music be an affair of nationality in any respect? Why should we be so narrow-minded and glory so overtly in our indestructible insularity?’
What did the Nazis do throughout WW2?
Throughout World Warfare II, the Nazis centralised musical censorship in tandem with their political alliances: whereas music by Italians, who had been allied to the Germans, was carried out, composers from enemy nations equivalent to France and Poland had been banned. Exceptions included Bizet’s Carmen, which remained a well-liked favorite in German opera homes, and Chopin, who loved the patronage of Hans Frank, the Governor of Occupied Poland. Russian music quickly loved favour between 1939 and ’41 with the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, however largely disappeared after Germany invaded Russia.
What did the British do throughout WW2?
The British had been much less regimented, preferring the fluid insurance policies that guided musical life throughout World Warfare I. However, the BBC issued a listing of composers whose work was deemed unsuitable for British audiences. The voluminous correspondence to be discovered within the BBC Written Archives reveals that the researchers who compiled the record of forbidden German and Austrian music had did not do their homework correctly. Amongst these proscribed had been a number of composers who weren’t solely victims of Nazi persecution, however who had additionally been granted refugee standing in Britain.